Part 2: Dissecting the Universal Flu Vaccine
(continued from Part 1: Dissecting the Seasonal influenza Vaccine)
To fully unravel the Biondvax Universal Flu Vaccine scandal, a top down approach is necessary. Professor Ruth Arnon, Ph.D, is the official “inventor of BiondVax’s innovative synthetic influenza vaccine and head of BiondVax’s Scientific Advisory Board“. She is also former “Vice-President of the Weizmann Institute of Science (1988-1997)…an internationally acclaimed immunologist. Along with Prof. Michael Sela, she conceptualized and developed ‘Copaxone®’, a blockbuster treatment for multiple sclerosis currently manufactured and commercialized by Teva.”
Contrary to all the Industry fanfare praising the drug, it turns out Copaxone adverse effects ranging from Respiratory Arrest, Tremors, Cardiovascular Disorder, Suicidal Ideation, Shock, Cardiac Disorder Thrombosis, Renal Disorder & Multiple Sclerosis to numerous incidents of deaths were deliberately buried from Press Publications; while references to negative test results in mice from early Clinical Trials were also conveniently omitted. This is noteworthy considering Dr. Ruth Arnon managed the entire process surrounding research & development of Copaxone®. Given her track record for professional misconduct bordering on criminal negligence, similar red flags must therefore be raised, from the outset, when investigating her newest project of record, the “One For All” Multimeric-001 Universal Flu Vaccine. In addition, the overall credibility of Biondvax is obviously tarnished, having honored her with such a prestigious position, despite her recognizably negligent track record.
‘Israeli generics giant Teva Pharmaceutical Industries is suffering a couple of Copaxone-related headaches. First, Israel’s health ministry appointed a special committee to probe a trial of the MS drug. Allegedly, Teva tested Copaxone on ALS patients–despite the fact that previous trials on mice had failed. Teva maintains that testing Copaxone in human ALS patients was perfectly safe despite the deaths seen in mice taking the drug, because Copaxone had already made it through plenty of human trials for its approval as an MS drug. But an internal investigation by the health ministry’s comptroller found that the company didn’t submit all the necessary info before trial approval. So the special committee will take a look at the evidence to see whether the ministry and/or the company did anything wrong.’
Copaxone (Glatiramer) – Adverse Event Reports – Serious Event – Death: Reported by a consumer/non-health professional from United States on 2010-01-28
1. Patient: female, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone,
2. Patient: male, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone,
3. Patient: female, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone,
4. Patient: female, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone,
5. Patient: male, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone,
6. Patient: female, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone,
7. Patient: female, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone,
8. Patient: female, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone,
9. Patient: female, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone,
10. Patient: female, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone,
11. Patient: male, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone,
12. Patient: female, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone,
13. Patient: female, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone,
14. Patient: female, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone,
15. Patient: female, Reactions: Death, Adverse event resulted in: death, Suspect drug(s): Copaxone
Copaxone (Glatiramer) – Adverse Event Reports – Non-death related Serious Events
Teva were also on the losing end of a $505 million settlement involving Hepatitis C contamination from the use of multi-dose vials, another indication of profit inclined bad judgement & systemic professional disregard for public safety.
‘Doctors are now calling for ban on multi-dose vials in US after nurse anaesthetists at Endoscopy Center of Southern Nevada were recently caught routinely double/triple dipping vials containing the anaesthetic drug Propofol. So far 116 patients have been found to be infected with the Hepatitis C virus. 1 victim has received $505m in damages, one of the largest vaccine settlements ever. Two drug companies, Teva Parenteral Medicines and Baxter Healthcare, have been ordered to pay $500m of the damages after the jury dismissed their claim that a “properly labelled product had been blatantly misused by the clinic in question.” Both companies are appealing, but the total award for the hepatitis C outbreak could eventually prove to be one of the largest in medical litigation history.
The key issue is that a single dose of propofol is rarely more than 20 ml. Yet despite evidence from previous outbreaks about the risk of 50 ml vials the companies continued to market them. Since 1998 there have been 35 healthcare associated outbreaks of hepatitis in the United States, infecting more than 500 patients. The prosecution lawyer Robert Eglet called the large vials “weapons of mass destruction.” He said, “This case has always been about trying to get these drug companies to do the right thing and stop selling jumbo sized vials of propofol to endoscopy centres where they know, and they’ve known for over a decade—that they’re going to multidose multiple patients out of them.”’
Fronting Biondvax’s scientific advisory board, Professor Michel Revel, M.D., Ph.D., a staunch advocate of Bioethics/Eugenics, part of the Trans-humanist Movement, with international ties to the UN. ‘Alongside his research and development activity, Revel is deeply involved in the ethics of science and biotechnology, and serves as chairman of the Bioethics Advisory Committee of the Israel Academy of Sciences and as a member of the International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO. He integrates his work in science with traditional Judaism and Jewish philosophy in addressing bioethical issues such as use of human Embryo Stem cells, genetic intervention in man and cloning.’ Revel was most likely brought on board to grease the wheels politically, addressing the various ethical boundaries being transgressed & public concerns over the commercial application of cloning technology.
Shifting gears to the Universal Flu Vaccine model, Biondvax have hit the ground running with a series of high gloss press releases praising the advanced technology – while carefully deflecting attention away from any previous scandals. Journalists have either been told not to stir the hornet’s nest (consider the price tag) or else history has become malleable in the age of corporate media information control.
“BiondVax uses a unique and proprietary (patented cell lines) combination of nine selected epitopes (portion of a molecule to which an antibody binds consisting of sugars, lipids or amino acids) that are conserved (reverse-engineered – theoretically encoding/isolating the complete genome sequence of a pathogen) and common to most influenza strains (which is impossible).”
This so called “quantum leap in the flu vaccine arena” ostensibly enables the ability to isolate & commercially harness/mass-produce “a proprietary combination of conserved, non-changing epitopes, or peptides, common to practically all existing and future flu virus strains, including both seasonal strains as well as pandemic strains (e.g. avian and swine), regardless of their antigenic drift and shifts, which “activate both arms of the immune system (humoral and cellular), providing the broadest possible protection against infection (including Type A and Type B strains)”: essentially a recurring genomic marker found throughout the world community, in terms of Influenza patterns, from which we all may benefit permanently.
‘”We think that’s one of the key commercial benefits and competitive advantages of this vaccine compared with others that are on the market,” Wayne Rudolph, BiondVax’s vice president of corporate development, told BioWorld International. Its Multimeric-001 Universal Vaccine incorporates epitopes from three viral proteins – five from hemagglutinin, three from nucleoprotein and one from the external matrix protein M2. The array is repeated in triplicate and is designed to elicit both a humoral and a cellular immune response.’
“The main advantage with Multimeric-001 is that the vaccine is based on several conserved regions of the virus, which is designed to elicit cross-protective immunity against many different strains of flu virus. The aim is that we would not have to get vaccinated every year but only need a booster every 5 years or so…because our vaccine is universal, it can be used as a priming dose for different flu vaccines and one can be vaccinated throughout the year, and not just before winter. Our clinical development program depends on the results of Phase II and III trials, which should take between 3 and 5 years. We would expect the Phase II trials to happen between the second half of 2010 and the first half of 2011, and the Phase III trials to commence in 2012. Thus, in 3 years time in 2013, our vaccine will probably be at the latter stages of clinical trial development. Hopefully, our clinical development will proceed as planned and the Multimeric vaccine will be available on the market in a few years time.” Tamar Ben-Yedidia/BiondVax Pharmaceuticals Ltd Representative
‘It is now possible to determine the complete genome sequence of a pathogen in a short period of time (months) at low cost. Genomic information can then be used to screen the inclusive set of proteins potentially encoded by a microorganism, in search of potential vaccine candidates – an approach known as reverse vaccinology’.
One primary concern which jumps right off the page, the required use of E. coli bacteria to ferment the epitopes/peptides.”BiondVax’s vaccine is a recombinant protein, efficiently manufactured by fermentation in E. coli (transformed with pLS408), facilitating production of commercial-scale quantities in 6-8 weeks” While most varieties of E. coli are considered “harmless or cause relatively brief diarrhea”, typically “a few particularly nasty strains, such as E. coli O157:H7, can cause severe, bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps, followed by serious organ system damage such as kidney failure.” As the Mayo Clinic points out, “Healthy adults usually recover from infection with E. coli O157:H7 within a week, but young children and older adults can develop a life-threatening form of kidney failure called hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS).” Biondvax is clearly playing with fire here; given all that we learned about cross contamination, synergistic toxicity & the risk of adventitious agents/cancer, including the mutability factor of viruses when harnessing virus-heavy metal-tissue culture reagent-stabilizer cocktails in conjunction with animal cell substrates for vaccines.
‘There are many strains (over 700 serotypes) of E. coli. Most of the E. coli are normal inhabitants of the small intestine and colon and do not cause disease in the intestines (non-pathogenic). Nevertheless, these non-pathogenic E. coli can cause disease if they spread outside of the intestines, for example, into the urinary tract (where they cause bladder or kidney infections), or into the blood stream (sepsis). Other E. coli strains (enterovirulent E. coli strains or EEC) cause “poisoning” or diarrhea even though they usually remain within the intestine by producing toxins or intestinal inflammation.’
Probing deeper into Biondvax’s methodology reveals serious health hazards corresponding to the research & development findings behind the Universal Flu Vaccine.
US Patent Application 20100074920/PEPTIDE VACCINE FOR INFLUENZA VIRUS, Laboratory procedure involving Peptides/detailed analysis –
‘The invention revealed natural human antibodies against each of the peptides studied. The data indicates that the peptides are antigenic and natural antibodies can recognize effectively such short peptide epitopes.
All peptides were dissolved in 10 mM sodium phosphate/0.15 M NaCl/2 mM EDTA, pH 7.2, to a concentration of 5 nmol/ml. One hundred microliters of the peptide solution (0.5 nmol of peptide) was added to each well and allowed to react overnight at +4° C. The plate was then washed three times with 10 mM sodium phosphate/0.15 M NaCl/0.05% Tween-20, pH 7.2).
Serum was obtained from six healthy individuals (29-44 years of age), and dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1000 were prepared from all but one serum sample in the washing buffer. The serum obtained from person nr. 5 was instead diluted 1:25, 1:250 and 1:2500 in the washing buffer. One hundred microliters of each serum sample was added to the wells and incubated for 30 mins at RT. Control wells contained no peptide but both 2-mercaptoethanol and BSA blockings were employed. All incubations were performed in duplicates.
The bound serum antibodies were quantitated by adding anti-human IgG (rabbit)–HRP conjugate (Sigma) in 1:30000 dilution to each well. After one hour incubation at RT, the plate was washed five times with the washing buffer. One hundred microliters of TMB+ color reagent (Dako Cytomation) was then added. The absorbance was read at 650 nm after 15 mins. Immediately after this measurement 100 μl of 1 M sulphuric acid was added and the absorbance read at 450 nm.’
Note 1: ‘The bound serum antibodies were quantitated by adding anti-human IgG (rabbit)’ Rabbit anti-human IgG (immunoglobulin – glycoprotein molecules that are produced by plasma cells in response to an immunogen and which function as antibodies). “Many novel vaccines are produced in animal cell substrates, and emerging infectious diseases may theoretically be transmitted from animals to humans through these vaccines. The challenge of identifying potential adventitious agents in vaccines closely parallels the challenge of identifying the agents causing particular emerging infectious diseases.’ US Centers for Disease Control
Note 2: ‘The plate was then washed three times with Tween-20’, then ‘five times with the washing buffer’). Tween-20 (detergent/washing buffer): Identical formula to Polysorbate 80/Tween 80 – linked to infertility & severe allergic reactions (ie. Anaphylaxis). ‘Neonatal female rats were injected with Tween 80 after birth. Treatment accelerated maturation, prolonged the oestrus cycle & induced persistent vaginal oestrus. Ovaries were without corpora lutea & had degenerative follicies.‘
Note 3: ‘The plate was then washed three times with 10 mM sodium phosphate‘. Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Heptahydrate (also know as Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate) – Chemical composition includes Fluoride/50 mg/kg, Arsenic/50 mg/kg, Lead/10 ppm. Excipients (pharmacologically inactive substance, carriers for the active ingredients of a medication)), used as part of a phosphate buffered saline in vaccines. May sequester calcium and cause calcium phosphate deposits in kidneys. Chronic ingestion or inhalation may induce systemic phosphorous poisoning. Liver damage, kidney damage, jaw/tooth abnormalities, blood disorders & cardiovascular effects can result. The toxicity of phosphates is because of their ability to sequester calcium.
RECOMBINANT FLAGELLIN GENE AND USES THEREOF/Patent Application WO/2007/125535, BIONDVAX PHARMACEUTICALS LTD., November 08, 2007, Laboratory procedure involving “cloning and expression of the modified gene” (critical in the development of the Universal Flu Vaccine) –
‘The expression vector was digested with BamHI and Ncol restriction enzymes. Ncol digestion was performed under conditions that allow only partial digestion in order to isolate a polynucleotide which had not been cleaved at the Ncol site existing within the kanamycin resistance coding sequence. The modified fliC gene was isolated from construct pBND12.9 by restriction with Ncol and BgIII. The two fragments were ligated and the resulting construct contains a unique Xhol site that was inserted with the fliC gene fragment and is new in pUCl 8. On the other hand, both BamHI and BgIII sites were obliterated during ligation, as were the EcoRI, Kpnl, Sad and Smal restriction enzyme sites.
Resulting clones were partially sequenced (at the junction regions) and a correct clone having a nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 was selected and named pBVXOO. Expression of pB VXOO in a flagella-deficient E. coli strain Expression of the modified fliC gene from the pBVXOO construct was tested in the flagella-deficient E. coli strain. Cells were transformed with the pBVXOO vector.
Control transformations included: a negative control (transformation with pBNDδ.l, which does not contain a fliC gene) and a positive control (transformation with pBND12.9). Expression was induced with IPTG and cells were harvested 4 hours following IPTG induction. Supernatants and pellets were analyzed by 10% SDS-PAGE with Coomassie staining (Figure 4). Supernatants were analyzed by Western blotting with a rabbit anti-flagellin antibody (Figure 5) The positive control is isolated flagella from Salmonella cells transformed with pLS408. Membranal samples were analyzed by Western blotting with a rabbit anti- flagellin antibody (Figure 6). The positive control is isolated flagella from Salmonella cells transformed with pLS408.’
To clarify, Biondvax are using pLS408 to “transform” or temper down the E. coli strain for service in the Flu Vaccine protein mixture. ”BiondVax’s vaccine is a recombinant protein, efficiently manufactured by fermentation in E. coli (transformed with pLS408), facilitating production of commercial-scale quantities in 6-8 weeks”
Note 1: ‘The positive control is isolated flagella from Salmonella cells’ – ‘Pathogenic Salmonella enter cells such as those of the intestinal epithelium by altering cellular cytoskeletal structure and inducing membrane ruffling of the infected cell. Salmonella is able to alter the cytoskeleton and membrane through the action of secreted bacterial Sip proteins.’
Note 2: ‘…transformed with pLS408’ – ‘A potential approach to antifertility vaccine by expression of sperm membrane peptide in Salmonella/Gao AW, Yan YC, Yang QS, Zhao F, Dong Q, Zhang ML, Koide SS., Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology, Academia Sinica, Shanghai, China, 1998 Mar;31 – ‘The Salmonella strain carrying the recombinant plasmid-pLS408-H1 may thus be a potential source of antifertility vaccine.’
Note 3: Flagella-deficient strain E.coli (Strains that possess flagella can swim and are motile. The flagella have a peritrichous arrangement)
Note 4: ‘…construct was tested in the flagella-deficient E. coli strain’ – ‘The flagella-deficient strain E.coli C600 hsm hsr fliC::Tn10 (also called E.coli KS01; Kuwajima, 1988a) carries a silenced fliC gene but has the other genes needed for the synthesis and polymerization of functional flagellar filaments. The strain also expresses the common, mannoside-binding type-1 fimbriae.’
‘Pathogenic Salmonella enter cells such as those of the intestinal epithelium by altering cellular cytoskeletal structure and inducing membrane ruffling of the infected cell. Salmonella is able to alter the cytoskeleton and membrane through the action of secreted bacterial Sip proteins.’
‘The Salmonella strain carrying the recombinant plasmid-pLS408-H1 may thus be a potential source of antifertility vaccine.’ – excerpt from findings re.’A potential approach to antifertility vaccine by expression of sperm membrane peptide in Salmonella., Gao AW, Yan YC, Yang QS, Zhao F, Dong Q, Zhang ML, Koide SS., Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology, Academia Sinica, Shanghai, China., March 31, 1988′
Biondvax are utilizing an experimental adjuvant traditionally reserved for veterinary formulations and more recently in the field of radical Cancer Therapy treatments. Mineral oil type solutions of this kind have been restricted from general use in most countries, including the US, until now. Seemingly the floodgates have been opened wide to accommodate novel vaccine development of this kind. According to BiondVax Chief Scientific Officer Tamar Ben-Yedidia, “The virus is adjuvanted with Montanide ISA 51VG, a water-in-oil emulsion similar to Freund’s adjuvant. That represents a second reformulation of the vaccine – an earlier version employed bacterial flagellin protein as an immunostimulant. “Unfortunately mice respond very well to the flagellin protein. Humans are very sensitive to it,”
‘Oil based vaccines are widely used in veterinary field to prevent from infectious diseases since many years. The strong stimulation of immune system they induce and the demand of better vaccines conducted to develop dedicated formulations to human. Montanide ISA 51 VG and Montanide ISA 720 VG are adjuvants rendering stable W/O emulsions when mixed with antigenic media. Their clinical development, started 30 years ago, is linked to the history of peptide based therapeutic vaccines for cancer.’
‘Compared to traditional Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvants (IFA), modern oil adjuvants such as the MONTANIDE ISA ranges have been developed to improve both the safety and efficacy of the formulated vaccines and also provide vaccine emulsion properties (stability, viscosity, seringeability, etc.) (11). MONTANIDE adjuvants have been applied in veterinary and human therapeutic vaccines (12). Veterinary applications have been used in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) eradication programmes worldwide for more than 40 years. Human applications have existed since 1992 for therapeutic vaccines and recently led to a cancer treatment breakthrough with the first cancer vaccine license based on MONTANIDE ISA 51 VG (10).’
Side Effects in Laboratory Animals Historically Attributed to the Use of Freund’s Incomplete Adjuvant:
1. Sterile abscesses
3. Muscle indurations
4. Plasma cell neoplasia in BALB/c mice
5. Ascites in BALB/c mice
Side Effects in Laboratory Animals Historically Attributed to the Use of Freund’s Complete Adjuvant
3. Muscle indurations
4. Plasma cell neoplasia in BALB/c mice
5. Ascites in BALB/c mice
Complete Analysis: Side Effects in Laboratory Animals Historically Attributed to the Use of Freund’s Incomplete Adjuvant (similar in composition to the Biondvax adjuvant formula) –
1. Sterile abscesses:
‘A sterile abscess is one that is not produced by an infection. It is caused by irritants, such as foreign bodies or injected drugs, and medications that have not been totally absorbed. Sterile abscesses quite often heal into hardened scar tissue.’ http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/abscess#ixzz1IzoYbPTp
Granulomas may be encountered in association with a variety of malignant neoplasms in the following circumstances – Commonly in Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin T cell lymphomas, seminoma of the testis and ovarian dysgerminoma. Some individuals with seminoma may develop granulomatous lymphadenitis in non-metastatic lymph nodes in sites distant from the primary tumor. In Hodgkin disease granulomas may be seen in iiver and spleen which exhibit no evidence of Hodgkin disease involvement. http://granuloma.homestead.com/cancer_and_granuloma.html
“A granuloma is a compact (organized) collection of mature mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages and/or epithelioid cells) which may or may not be accompanied by accessory features such as necrosis or the infiltration of other inflammatory leukocytes” (Adams DO. The granulomatous inflammatory response.” Am J Pathol 1976:84:163-192)
‘A granuloma is a non-specific type of inflammatory response which may be triggered by diverse antigenic agents or by inert foreign materials. The antigenic triggering agents cause activation of the cellular immune system (T lymphocytes and macrophages); granulomas are formed as the result of the complex interaction of cytokines produced by these cells.The antigenic triggering agents include a wide variety of infectious agents (mycobacteria, fungi, etc.) beryllium, the unknown antigen(s) responsible for sarcoidosis and numerous other antigens. Granulomatous reactions to inert foreign bodies are generally considered to be non-immunologic in origin.’
3. Muscle indurations:
Induration: ‘The hardening of a normally soft tissue or organ, especially the skin, because of inflammation, infiltration of a neoplasm (cancer), or an accumulation of blood.’
4. Plasma cell neoplasia in BALB/c mice:
Plasma Cell Neoplasia: Clinical Manifestations and Characteristic Features, W. Pruzanski and I. Rother
Multiple myeloma: ‘A type of cancer that begins in plasma cells (white blood cells that produce antibodies). Also called Kahler disease, myelomatosis, and plasma cell myeloma.’ Estimated new cases and deaths from multiple myeloma in the United States in 2010: New cases: 20,180, Deaths: 10,650
‘Have you ever heard of cancers composed of mature nerve cells or skeletal muscle? The clue to this mystery is that malignant plasma cells have matured from a malignant, less terminally differentiated precursor that is their proliferating and circulating source.’
5. Ascites in BALB/c mice:
‘Ascites is the accumulation of fluid (usually serous fluid which is a pale yellow and clear fluid) in the abdominal (peritoneal) cavity. The abdominal cavity is located below the chest cavity, separated from it by the diaphragm. Ascitic fluid can have many sources such as liver disease, cancers, congestive heart failure, or kidney failure.’
Ascites can be a symptom of many types of cancer. The types of cancer that are more likely to cause ascites are cancer of the breast, lung, large bowel (colon), stomach, pancreas, ovary and the lining of the womb (endometrium). There may be several reasons for the build-up of ascites –
A. If cancer cells have spread to lining of the abdomen, they can irritate it and cause fluid to build up.
B. If the liver is affected by cancer cells, this may block the circulation of blood through the liver, which can lead to a build-up of fluid in the abdomen.
C. If the liver is damaged, it may produce less blood protein. This may upset the body’s fluid balance, which causes fluid to build up in the body tissues, including the abdomen.
D. Cancer cells can block the lymphatic system. This is a network of fine channels which runs throughout the body. One of its functions is to drain off excess fluid, which is eventually got rid of in the urine. If some of these lymphatic channels are blocked, the system can’t drain efficiently and fluid can build up.
‘Freund’s adjuvants are water-in-mineral oil emulsions (W/O emulsions) without heat-killed mycobacteria added (Freund’s incomplete adjuvant) or with heat-killed mycobacteria added (Freund’s complete adjuvant – 5 mg of dried, heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis or butyricum added). Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA) has been included in veterinary, as well as human, vaccines. The veterinary vaccines included vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease, equine influenza virus, hog cholera, rabies, para influenza, Newcastle disease and infectious canine hepatitis.
Efficacy & adverse side effects report on Freund’s Incomplete adjuvant
A. In cattle, FIA was inefficient in combination with herpes virus.
B. In humans, FIA was used for a period of about two decades, particularly with vaccines against influenza virus, tetanus toxoid and killed polio-myelitis virus, whereas it failed to increase vaccine efficacy when used with adeno virus and trachoma.
C. In Britain alone, approximately 900,000 doses of a mineral oil-adjuvanted influenza vaccine were administered to humans in the early 1960s. The most frequent side-effects recorded after the use of FIA-adjuvanted vaccines in patients were cystic swellings and muscle indurations. Indurations could persist for up to 1 yr after injection. Histological examination of the indurated loci showed oil granulomas with central vacuoles where the oil was assumed to have resided. The vacuoles were surrounded by epitheloid and fibroblast cells with scattered plasma cells.
D. All together, more than 500,000 humans have been vaccinated with FIA adjuvanted vaccines. However, in the mid-1960s, the use of FIA in human vaccination was discontinued because of concerns about the safety of the adjuvant.’
History of ‘Freund’s complete & Incomplete Adjuvant
‘Freund’s Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA) has the same oil/surfactant mixture as FCA but does not contain any mycobacteria. It is frequently used to boost animals that received a primary antigen injection in FCA, but it can be used as the adjuvant for the primary injection as well. It has adjuvant properties that favor humoral immunity without cell-mediated immunity, but is generally considered to be less potent than FCA (although exceptions exist). FIA is capable of causing abscesses and granuloma formation, but such reactions are generally less severe than those that accompany the use of FCA.
In the 1960s, emulsified water-in-oil and water-in-vegetable-oil adjuvant preparations used experimentally showed special promise in providing exalted “immunity” of long duration (Hilleman, 1966). The development of Freund’s adjuvants emerged from studies of tuberculosis. Several researchers noticed that immunological responses in animals to various antigens were enhanced by introduction into the animal of living Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the presence of Mycobacterium, the reaction obtained was of the delayed type, transferrable with leukocytes. Freund measured the effect of mineral oil in causing delayed-type hypersensitivity to killed mycobacteria. There was a remarkable increase in complement-fixing antibody response as well as in delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Freund’s adjuvant consists of a water-in-oil emulsion of aqueous antigen in paraffin (mineral) oil of low specific gravity and low viscosity. Drakeol 6VR and Arlacel A (mannide monooleate) are commonly used as emulsifiers.
The pathologic reaction to the Freund’s adjuvants starts at the injection site with mild erythema and swelling followed by tissue necrosis, intense inflammation and the usual progression to the formation of a granulomatous lesion. Scar and abscess formation may occur. The reactions observed following the administration of the complete adjuvant are generally far more extensive than with the incomplete adjuvant. The earliest cellular response is polymorphonuclear, then it changes into mononuclear and later includes plasmocytes. The adjuvant emulsion may be widely disseminated in varrious organs, depending on the route of inoculation, with the development of focal granulomatous lesions at distal places. Various gram-negative organisms may show a potentiating effect of the adjuvant, similar to that displayed by mycobacteria.
Allergens in Freund’s adjuvant deserve special attention because they can be dangerous. These dangers include an overdose, i.e., the immediate release of more than the tolerated amount of properly emulsified vaccine in sensitive persons, or the breaking of the emulsion with the release of all or part of the full content of the allergen within a brief period of time. Long-term delayed reactions include the development of nodules, cysts or sterile abscesses requiring surgical incision. It is also likely that some allergens used, such as house dust or mould, might have acted like mycobacteria to potentiate the inflammatory response. Such reactions have been reduced with the use of properly tested and standardised reagins.
One must also consider that the first application of Freund’s adjuvants was made at a time when modern concepts of safety were non-existent Indeed, mineral oil adjuvants have not been approved for human use in some countries, including the USA (apparently until now).’
According to the Vaccine Industry protocol, the oil component of oil-in-water adjuvants generally consists of part crude oil (‘normally light mineral oil of a highly purified quality’). ‘Through refining of the oil for use in adjuvants, a so-called “white mineral oil” is obtained by sulfonation to remove aromatic hydrocarbons. Unsaturated and other reactive hydrocarbons, as well as sulfur and nitrogenderivatives and volatiles, are also removed. Further refining may take place through filtration and extraction with alcohol.’
‘Traditionally, the modus operandi of the mineral oil emulsions is associated with at least three different mechanisms: (1) The establishment of a repository antigen-containing locus at the site of injection allowing a gradual and continous release of the antigen; (2) provision of a vehicle capable of trans-porting emulsified antigen through the lymphatic system to distant sites (e.g.,draining lymphnodes and the spleen) creating additional foci of antibody formation; and (3) interaction with mononuclear cells, such as phagocytic cells,antigen presenting cells, etc.’
Crude Oils contain:
A. paraffins (alkanes, saturated noncyclic hydrocarbonchains)
B. olefins (alkenes, unsaturated, noncyclic hydrocarbon chains)
C. cycloparaffins (cycloalkanes, naphtenes, saturated cyclic hydrocarbon rings)
D. aromatic hydrocarbons (cyclic compounds with resonating doublebonds).
Examples of Light Mineral Oils Used in Oil Adjuvants:
Drakeol 6VR (source: PenReCo)
Bayol F (source: ESSO)
Marcol 52 (source: ESSO)
Marcol 82 (source: ESSO)
MedicWay M7 (source: Statoil)
In the case of the Universal Flu Vaccine ‘a water-in-oil emulsion similar to Freund’s adjuvant‘ known as Montanide ISA 51VG has been added; said to ‘render stable W/O (water-in-oil) emulsions when mixed with antigenic media (stimulates the production of an antibody).’
Montanide ISA 51VG
‘Montanide ISA Adjuvants [Seppic, Paris, France] are a group of oil/surfactant based adjuvants in which different surfactants are combined with either a non-metabolizable mineral oil, a metabolizable oil, or a mixture of the two. They are prepared for use as an emulsion with aqueous Ag solution. The surfactant for Montanide ISA 50 [ISA = Incomplete Seppic Adjuvant] is mannide oleate, a major component of the surfactant in Freund’s adjuvants. The surfactants of the Montanide group undergo strict quality control to guard against contamination by any substances that could cause excessive inflammation, as has been found for some lots of Arlacel A used in Freund’s adjuvant. The various Montanide ISA group of adjuvants are used as water-in-oil emulsions, oil-in-water emulsions, or water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. The different adjuvants accommodate different aqueous phase/oil phase ratios, because of the variety of surfactant and oil combinations. The performance of these adjuvants is said to be similar to Incomplete Freunds Adjuvant [IFA] for antibody production; however the inflammatory response is usually less.’
‘Montanide ISA 51 VG – An water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion with immunomoadjuvant activity. Montanide ISA 51 VG appears to act by enhancing the immune system’s cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against antigen(s) in vaccines. The surfactant mannide monooleate in Montanide ISA 51 VG contains vegetable-grade (VG) oleic acid derived from olive oil.’
‘Montanide ISA-51, a stabilized water-in-oil emulsion adjuvant containing mineral oil with mannide oleate added as a surfactant, non-specifically stimulates cell-mediated immune responses to antigens.’
‘At histological examination vaccine preparations (those containing Montanide ISA 51 VG) were shown to induce inflammatory lesions consisting of cysts and granulomas with infiltration of macrophages and plasma cells around them. Some lesions were surrounded by fibrosis.’
‘The emulsifier used in Freund’s complete and incomplete adjuvant to form the W/O (water-in-oil) emulsion is mannide monooleate, an ester consisting of mannitol as the hydrophilic residue and oleic acid, a C18 fatty acid, as the hydrophobic residue. Arlacel A is a tradename for mannide monooleate.
Abstract: This investigation was undertaken to determine the metabolic fate of mannide monooleate when employed in a mineral oil emulsion. Female white rats and female squirrel monkeys were injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly with an emulsion made with mineral oil and surfactant and including either 1-14C-oleate or UL-14C-mannide-labeled mannide monooleate tracer preparations. It was shown that 30–40% of the surfactant mixture is removed from the site of injection after 24 hr. After 1 week, 40–60% of the surfactant is removed from the site of injection; while after 3 months, 10–30% of the surfactant still remains. The 1-14C-oleatelabeled mannide monooleate was largely incorporated into the various lipid classes, while the UL-14C-mannide-labeled mannide monooleate preparation was largely eliminated in the urine. There was some indication that the inguinal lymph nodes of monkeys may have contained unusually large amounts of radioactivity.’
‘Nearly 30 years after intense investigations of mannide monooleates for use as vaccine adjuvants, a novel adjuvant-active saccharide oleate ester was isolated and identified from the product mixture synthesized from mannitol and oleic acid. The mixture, which contained many kinds of mannide mono- and dioleates and their derivatives, was fractionated by liquid chromatography (LC), and the fraction with the highest adjuvanticity was obtained. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed that it consisted of one major compound with an average molecular weight (MW) 2850. Infrared (IR) absorption and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra suggested it had oligosaccharide moieties and oleate domains. These findings suggested that it was an oligosaccharide oleate ester of the average MW 2850. The molecular ratio of oleate chains per monosaccharide unit was approximately 0.8.’
Surfactant: ‘Disinfection is usually done with chemical agents, the most important which are aldehydes (formaldehyde), alcohols, phenols, halogens (I. CI.), and surfactants (detergents).’
‘Adverse effects of surfactant include apnea or lack of breathing, nosocomial or hospital-acquired infections, and patent ductus arteriosus, an abnormality of the heart. Surfactant preparations are effective in preventing and treating Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants, but the long-term effects of surfactant preparations on disease and death have not been determined. (Consumer Summary produced by Reliance Medical Information, Inc.).’
In many ways the greatest threat posed by 21st Century Vaccine Technology is cloning in & of itself; the hubris of replicating/mass-producing, from scratch, signature protein epitopes to construct an “innovative synthetic influenza vaccine“. As always, nature proves itself resilient to change, and will respond to man’s attempts at reshuffling the deck by literally re-assorting man. We have opened another Pandora’s Box, and with it the probability for unforeseen genetic mutations – given the inexactitude of the science; literally a a game of genetic roulette where-in the community at large will become unwitting volunteers in the greatest experiment since the advent of the Industrial Age (‘…the degree of attenuation of laboratory-passaged viruses may or may not be known. There can in some cases be uncertainty regarding the biological attributes of a synthetic replica of a gene bank virus sequence‘).
‘The ability to carry out DNA synthesis is no longer confined to an elite group of scientists as was the case for the first several decades of research using recombinant DNA. Now, anyone with a laptop computer can access public DNA sequence databases via the Internet, access free DNA design software, and place an order for synthesized DNA for delivery.’
Multimeric-001 Vaccine: Clinical Trial results as reported by Biondvax –
‘Data from a single-blind, placebo-controlled, Israeli Phase I/II trial in 60 healthy volunteers ages 55-75 years showed that 2 intramuscular injections of BiondVax’s Multimeric-001 with or without adjuvant followed by administration of an undisclosed commercially-available seasonal influenza vaccine induced a significant increase in the levels of antibodies against the Multimeric-001 vaccine and led to a significant elevation in the secretion of interferon (IFN) gamma and interleukin-2 (IL-2). Two injections of the highest dose (500 μg) of Multimeric-001 plus adjuvant exhibited the highest immunogenicity. The vaccine was well tolerated at all doses tested, both with and without adjuvant. Data were presented at the BIO International Convention in Chicago.BiondVax previously reported data from a Phase I/II trial in 60 healthy volunteers ages 18-49 showing similar results (see BioCentury, Dec. 21,2009).’
‘From a cellular immunity perspective, it was again found that the Multimeric-001 vaccine caused a statistically significant elevation in the secretion of interferon gamma and interleukin-2. This cellular response distinguishes the Multimeric-001 vaccine from existing seasonal flu vaccines, which are characterised mainly by their ability to stimulate only a humoral response. As was found in the first Phase I/II trial, the highest immunogenicity was observed when using the highest dose (500mcg) adjuvanted formulation of the Multimeric-001 vaccine.’
Note: Biondvax volunteers were given a double dose of shots, both the Universal Multimeric-001 Flu vaccine and ‘an undisclosed commercially-available seasonal influenza vaccine‘; others a combination of ‘two injections of the highest dose (500 μg) of Multimeric-001 plus adjuvant’. In neither instance was the vaccine used on its own; an early indication of the inefficiency of the vaccine adjuvant in the field.
Considering Professor Ruth Arnon’s track-record, the deliberate misrepresentation & embellishment of Copaxone Clinical Trial results which she oversaw (‘deaths seen in mice taking the drug’, ‘tested Copaxone on ALS patients–despite the fact that previous trials on mice had failed’, ‘the company didn’t submit all the necessary info before trial approval’), there is simply no way to confirm the accuracy of Biondvax’s current Universal Flu Vaccine Clinical Trial data. Remember she is the official “inventor of BiondVax’s innovative synthetic influenza vaccine and head of BiondVax’s Scientific Advisory Board“.
Inevitably the brunt of any damage, short or long term, will occur after it is too late, as reports of adverse effects trickle/pour in from countries around the world. By then the Vaccine Lobbyist Spin Doctors will have new excuses to deflect blame away from this burgeoning investment. Within a generation, as Cancer levels surge & fertility rates plummet, we may lose our momentum once the mainstream Corporate fueled Media shuts down the Independent voices of freedom. There will always be those who take sides on this issue, the whistle-blowers waiting in the wings. But we can’t depend on that.
What will forfeit their progress prematurely? Full disclosure of company internal laboratory results & Executive Board daily minutes as regarding this product. The public the right to know. After all we are the target market. And yet, given our sheer strength of numbers & moral responsibility of purpose, the vast majority, historically, will defer that power to Gov’t institutions & fraudulent UN mandates; overlooking their natural born, inherent rights to self-determination of the body. That is why we MUST be the generation which turns the tide. Our children are counting on us to steer the course toward a brighter & healthier future. If we back down now, the Vaccine Industry will certainly gain a foothold on the dictates of our lives, through ever widening draconian style International agreements, the enforcement of Mass Vaccination mandates & eventual drugging of our water/food supply against our will; and we may lose this precious window. It is up to you.
“In a few hundred years the Gen-Rich, who account for 10 percent of the American population, will all carry synthetic genes.” Lee Silver, Professor, Department of Molecular Biology and Woodrow Wilson School for Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, ‘Remaking Eden: Cloning and Beyond in a Brave New World’
“Within thirty years, we will have the technological means to create superhuman intelligence. Shortly after, the human era will be ended.” Vernor Vinge, computer scientist, author of ‘Technological Singularity‘
Review of Part 1: Dissecting the Seasonal influenza Vaccine
Primary risks associated with Seasonal Influenza Vaccine uptake include:
1. Cross–contamination with adventitious agents (mutability factor/cross-contamination – ‘emerging infectious diseases may theoretically be transmitted from animals to humans through these vaccines‘).
3. Concerns over residual DNA associated with the use of ‘continuous cell lines (Vero cells – derived from African Green Monkey kidneys & CHO cells – derived from Chinese hamster ovaries used as substrates).
4. Oncogenic agents associated with the use of Diploid cell strains, derived from aborted fetal tissue, which causes neoplasms/cancer.
5. The use of Primary cells, obtained directly from the tissues of healthy animals; described as ‘more likely to contain adventitious agents than banked, well-characterized cells‘
6. Further, a shocking report from the National Coalition of Organized Women (NCOW) presented data from two different sources demonstrating that the 2009/10 H1N1 vaccines contributed to an estimated 1,588 miscarriages and stillbirths – as high as 3,587 cases.
Standard Influenza Vaccine ingredients of concern include:
1. Thimerosal Mercury, a sterilant preservative which binds with hemoglobin,rapidly depletes the immune system and induces auto-immune diseases ( ‘taken up in the periphery by all nerve endings and rapidly transported inside the axon of the nerves (axonal transport) to the spinal cord & brainstem’)
2. Aluminum (Aluminum Hydroxide/Potassium Sulfate) an adjuvant designed to trigger a robust immune response, which actually interferes with a variety of cellular & metabolic processes in the nervous system and in other tissues, causing severe long-term neurological damage (‘The results for aluminum were almost identical to ethyl mercury/Thimerosal because the amount of aluminum in vaccines goes almost exactly with the mercury’)
3. Neomycin & Polymixin B, both antibiotics added to the Influenza vaccine, both hazardous to a fetus, associated with kidney failure ( ‘exposure to Neomycin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus.’ – teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects).
4. Polysorbate 80 or ‘Tween 80‘ a detergent stabilizer linked to infertility & severe allergic reactions ie. Anaphylaxis (‘Neonatal female rats were injected with Tween 80 after birth. Treatment accelerated maturation, prolonged the oestrus cycle & induced persistent vaginal oestrus. Ovaries were without corpora lutea & had degenerative follicies.‘).
5. Βeta-Propiolactone, a disinfectant ranked as one of the most hazardous compounds (worst 10%) to humans and “reasonably expected to be a human carcinogen” (‘Neurological complications due to beta-propiolactone (BPL)-inactivated antirabies vaccination. Clinical, electrophysiological and therapeutic aspects’).
6. Formaldehyde, used as “a preservative & disinfectant”, which binds to the proteins in your DNA, known to cause cancer, chronic bronchitis, eye irritation when exposed to the body’s immune system (“It weakens the immune system, causes neurological system damage, genetic damage, metabolic acidosis, circulatory shock, respiratory insufficiency and acute renal failure, as well as being a sensitizer).
7. Potassium Chloride, used as part of a phosphate buffered saline, linked to infertility, pain and thrombophlebitis if administered in high concentration into small veins in patients with cardiac disease, renal impairment, or acidosis (“May induce Cardiac arrest especially in renal impairment or if administered too rapidly”).
8. Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Heptahydrate & Potassium Phosphate Monobasic, both excipients used as part of a phosphate buffered saline , may sequester calcium and cause calcium phosphate deposits in kidneys, chronic ingestion or systemic phosphorous poisoning (‘Liver damage, kidney damage, jaw/tooth abnormalities, blood disorders & cardiovascular effects can result‘).
9. Sodium Deoxycholate, a detergent added to new generation of ‘Split Vaccines’ to modify the whole virus which weakens the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and subsequently activate seizures (‘causes cell death and symptoms such as burning, redness, and swelling‘).
Review of Part 2: Dissecting the Universal Flu Vaccine
In addition to the overlapping concerns from the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine, the primary risks associated with the Biondvax One For All” Multimeric-001 Universal Flu Vaccine include:
1. The required use of E. coli bacteria to ferment the epitopes/peptides.”BiondVax’s vaccine is a recombinant protein, efficiently manufactured by fermentation in E. coli, facilitating production of commercial-scale quantities in 6-8 weeks” (“young children and older adults can develop a life-threatening form of kidney failure called hemolytic uremic syndrome“).
2. Cross-contamination of viral material which may produce chimera viruses (‘Because some mammalian tumors and some cells transformed by viruses contain infectious virus, cells transformed by an unknown mechanism have a theoretical risk of containing a transforming virus.’ FDA).
3. The onset of cancerous growth including Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (“There are several mechanisms by which vaccine cell substrates, including neoplastic cells, could theoretically become infected with a TSE agent.” FDA)
4. Laboratory procedure involving “cloning and expression of the modified gene”, critical in the development of the Universal Flu Vaccine, is utilizing isolated flagella from Salmonella cells transformed with pLS408 linked to infertility (‘The Salmonella strain carrying the recombinant plasmid-pLS408-H1 may thus be a potential source of antifertility vaccine.’).
Note: Biondvax are using pLS408 to “transform” or temper down the E. coli strain for service in the Flu Vaccine protein mixture. ”BiondVax’s vaccine is a recombinant protein, efficiently manufactured by fermentation in E. coli (transformed with pLS408), facilitating production of commercial-scale quantities in 6-8 weeks”
5. Potential adjuvant Montanide ISA 51VG side effects including Sterile abscesses (“…quite often heal into hardened scar tissue‘).
6. Granulomas (associated with a variety of malignant neoplasms in the following circumstances: Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin T cell lymphomas, seminoma of the testis & ovarian dysgerminoma‘).
8. Plasma Cell Neoplasia linked to Multiple myeloma (‘A type of cancer that begins in plasma cells – white blood cells that produce antibodies. Also called Kahler disease, myelomatosis, and plasma cell myeloma.’ Estimated new cases and deaths from multiple myeloma in the United States in 2010: New cases: 20,180, Deaths: 10,650′).
8. Ascites – the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, linked to liver disease, cancers, congestive heart failure, or kidney failure (‘The types of cancer that are more likely to cause ascites are cancer of the breast, lung, large bowel, stomach, pancreas, ovary and the lining of the womb‘).
9. Inflammatory lesions (‘At histological examination vaccine preparations – those containing Montanide ISA 51 VG, were shown to induce inflammatory lesions consisting of cysts and granulomas with infiltration of macrophages and plasma cells around them. Some lesions were surrounded by fibrosis.‘).
10. Emulsifier surfactant/disinfectant detergent complications (‘Adverse effects of surfactantinclude apnea or lack of breathing, nosocomial or hospital-acquired infections, and patent ductus arteriosus, an abnormality of the heart‘).
VRM Worldwide Autism Study
Direct link to study: http://study.vaccineresistancemovement.org/
VRM: The Problem With Vaccines Part 1
VRM: The Problem With Vaccines Part 2 – Synergistic Effect of Heavy Metal Toxicity On The Body
VRM: Vaccine Clinic – A Concise Compendium To The Problem With Vaccines
VRM: The Problem With Vaccines Part 3 – Synthetic Genomics & The Death Of Natural Immunity
VRM: A Concise Compendium To The Problem With Vaccines Part 3 – Synthetic Genomics & The Death Of Natural Immunity
VRM: The Problem With Vaccines Part 4 – Primary Aspects of Vaccine Toxicity Affecting Body
VRM: The Problem With Vaccines Part 5A – Detoxification & Restoration of the Body
VRM: The Problem With Vaccines Part 5B – Detoxification & Restoration of the Body
VRM: The Flu Report http://vaccineresistancemovement.org/?p=9226
VRM: 5 Reasons Not To Get The Flu Shot
VRM: Medical Industry Studies Prove Influenza Vaccine Is Both Dangerous & Ineffective
VRM: Gardasil/Cervarix – A Legacy Of Shame
VRM: Gardasil/Cervarix Part 2 – Demyelination, Multiple Sclerosis & the Copaxone Connection
VRM: Vaccine Ingredients
VRM: Safe Alternatives to Vaccines
VRM: Family Charts Gradual Decline Of Daughter
VRM: Autism – Steps To Take Toward Prevention
VRM: Health Matters Part 1
VRM: Health Matters Part 2
VRM: Alternative Cancer Cures That Work
VRM: Pregnancy Tips
VRM: H1N1 Shot Reactions – Miscarriages
VRM: The Vanishing Sperm Count
VRM: H1N1 Vaccine Surplus From 2009 Reveals Growing Distrust of Gov’t & WHO
VRM: Flu Death Statistics – WHO & The Big Lie
VRM: Vaccine Industry Deception, Propaganda & Media Collusion
VRM: Birth of Medical & Scientific Dictatorship – Future Scenarios
VRM: H1N1 Bio-weaponry Incorporated
VRM: Aids & The WHO Connection – Criminal Intent
VRM: Morgellons Syndrome & Chemtrails
VRM: Council On Foreign Relations 10/16/09- Major Influence on Government Vaccine Policy
VRM: Closed Door CDC Meeting Reveals Industry Cover-up Of Heavy Metal Toxicity In Vaccines
VRM: The Rockefeller Foundation Drafts A Post-Pandemic Scenario
VRM: World Health Organization & Vaccine Manufacturers Implicated In Massive H1N1 Financial Scam Involving Kickbacks & Cover-ups
VRM Live – 01/28/11: Vaccine Resistance Movement founder Joel Lord discusses Synthetic Genomics, cloned cell vaccine technology & the death of natural immunity, gutter journalism & Dr. Wakefield’s imminent vindication with ‘Truth to Power’ host Paul Mabelis.
VRM Live – 11/04/10: Vaccine Resistance Movement founder Joel Lord lays out the whole vaccine process with Paul Mabelis; including heavy metal toxicity, synergy, pregnancy issues & the basic principles of natural health at risk.
VRM Live – 09/24/10: Vaccine Resistance Movement Founder Joel Lord & activist/radio host Jesse Calhoun lay it all out tonite. Topics include the VRM Worldwide Autism Study, Scientific/Medical dictatorship, Natural Rights & Vaccine Industry fraud exposed. Special thanks to host Paul Mabelis.
If you appreciate the efforts to bring this information forward do consider making a donation. Any amount, no matter how small will help enable me to carry on this invaluable research. See Paypal link on the VRM website (click on ‘Donate’ tab in upper right corner). Thank you all.